The default coordinate system for regions is PHYSICAL, which means that region position and size values are taken from the original data. (Note that this is a change from the original IRAF/PROS implementation, in which the IMAGE coordinate system was the default.) PHYSICAL coordinates always refer to pixel positions on the original image (using IRAF LTM and LTV keywords). With PHYSICAL coordinates, if a set of coordinates specifies the position of an object in an original FITS file, the same coordinates will specify the same object in any FITS derived from the original. Physical coordinates are invariant with blocking of FITS files or taking sections of images, even when a blocked section is written to a new file. Thus, although a value in pixels refers, by default, to the PHYSICAL coordinate system, you may specify that position values refer to the image coordinate system using the global or local properties commands:
global coordsys image circle 512 512 100The global command changes the coordinate system for all regions that follow, while the local command changes the coordinate system only for the region immediately following:
local coordsys image circle 512 512 100 circle 1024 1024 200This changes the coordinate system only for the region that follows. In the above example, the second region uses the global coordinate system (PHYSICAL by default).
PHYSICAL # pixel coords of original file using LTM/LTV IMAGE # pixel coords of current file LINEAR # linear wcs as defined in file FK4, B1950 # various sky coordinate systems FK5, J2000 GALACTIC ECLIPTIC ICRS AMPLIFIER # mosaic coords of original file using ATM/ATV DETECTOR # mosaic coords of original file using DTM/DTVIn addition, two mosaic coordinate systems have been defined that utilize the (evolving) IRAF mosaic keywords:
AMPLIFIER # mosaic coords of original file using ATM/ATV DETECTOR # mosaic coords of original file using DTM/DTVAgain, to use one of these coordinate systems, the global or local properties commands are used:
global coordsys galactic
position arguments ------------------ [num] # context-dependent (see below) [num]p # pixels [num]d # degrees [num]r # radians [num]:[num]:[num] # hms for 'odd' position arguments [num]:[num]:[num] # dms for 'even' position arguments [num]h[num]m[num]s # explicit hms [num]d[num]m[num]s # explicit dmsIf ':' is used as sexagesimal separator, the value is considered to be specifying hours/minutes/seconds if it is the first argument of a positional pair, and degrees/minutes/seconds for the second argument of a pair (except for galactic coordinates, which always use degrees):
10:20:30.0 -- 10 hours, 20 minutes, 30 seconds for 1st positional argument -- 10 degrees, 20 minutes, 30 seconds for 2nd positional argument 10h20m30.0 -- 10 hours, 20 minutes, 30 seconds 10d20m30.0 -- 10 degrees, 20 minutes, 30 seconds 10.20d -- 10.2 degreesSimilarly, the units of size values are defined by the formating character(s) attached to a number:
size arguments -------------- [num] # context-dependent (see below) [num]" # arc sec for size arguments [num]' # arc min for size arguments [num]p # pixels for size arguments [num]d # degrees for size arguments [num]r # radians for size argumentsFor example:
10 -- ten pixels 10' -- ten minutes of arc 10" -- ten seconds of arc 10d -- ten degrees 10p -- ten pixels 0.5r -- half of a radian
An example of using sky coordinate systems follows:
global coordsys B1950 -box 175.54d 20.01156d 10' 10' local coordsys J2000 pie 179.57d 22.4d 0 360 n=4 && annulus 179.57d 22.4d 3' 24' n=5At the FK4 1950 coordinates 175.54d RA, 20.01156d DEC exclude a 10 minute by 10 minute box. Then at the FK5 2000 coordinates 179.57d RA 22.4d DEC draw a radial profile regions pattern with 4 quadrants and 5 annuli ranging from 3 minutes to 24 minutes in diameter. In this example, the default coordinate system is overridden by the commands in the regions spec.
When a "pure number" (i.e. one without a format directive such as 'd' for 'degrees') is specified as a position or size, its interpretation depends on the context defined by the 'coordsys' keyword. In general, the rule is:
All pure numbers have implied units corresponding to the current coordinate system.
If no coordinate system is explicitly specified, the default system is implicitly assumed to be PHYSICAL. In practice this means that for IMAGE and PHYSICAL systems, pure numbers are pixels. Otherwise, for all systems other than LINEAR, pure numbers are degrees. For LINEAR systems, pure numbers are in the units of the linear system. This rule covers both positions and sizes.
As a corollary, when a sky-formatted number is used with the IMAGE or PHYSICAL coordinate system (which includes the default case of no coordsys being specified), the formatted number is assumed to be in the units of the WCS contained in the current file. If no sky WCS is specified, an error results.
circle(512,512,10) ellipse 202.44382d 47.181656d 0.01d 0.02d
In the absence of a specified coordinate system, the circle uses the default PHYSICAL units of pixels, while the ellipse explicitly uses degrees, presumably to go with the WCS in the current file.
global coordsys=fk5 global color=green font="system 10 normal" circle 202.44382 47.181656 0.01 circle 202.44382 47.181656 10p ellipse(512p,512p,10p,15p,20)
Here, the circles use the FK5 units of degrees (except for the explicit use of pixels in the second radius), while the ellipse explicitly specifies pixels. The ellipse angle is in degrees.
Note that Chandra data format appears to use "coordsys=physical" implicitly. Therefore, for most Chandra applications, valid regions can be generated safely by asking ds9 to save/display regions in pixels using the PHYSICAL coordsys.